Electrophoresis is an analytical method in which a controlled electric current is used in order to separate biomolecules according to their size to electric charge ratio, using a gelatinous matrix as a base. This technique has a variety of practical uses, such as forensic medicine for human identification, the human genome project, protein and genetic mutation research, and clinical diagnostic testing.
Electrophoresis is carried out with equipment composed of a negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other, called an electrophoresis system. When inserting charged molecules, in this environment, the negative ones will go to one extreme and the positive ones to the other corresponding. For example, when analyzing proteins on a gel, in these kits, the entire protein is taken to analyze its size. In this way, the shorter ones will migrate to the poles more quickly and will be reflected in the lower part of the gel. Instead, the longest will be at the top.